Could have been named “northern Muscadet”, because their wines are very similar.
The hardiness can be very good, but unstable. Semi-late bud burst. Moderately vigorous, semi-drooping growth habit; excessive development of lateral shoots. Overripe, the berry skin is prone to cracking and rotting. Good resistance to disease. This early variety needs a good site, a maritime climate, or a site with heavy snow.
From a mutation of the Frontenac. Has the same morphological characteristics as the Frontenac noir. Ripens at least 10 days earlier than Frontenac. According to several people, this is the best white variety south of Quebec.
Varietals: Six years of vinification trials, using single or assembled varieties, the vine has shown its high versatility. More complex and finer than the Frontenac gris, with peach and tropical fruit aromas. Bright yellow color. Good potential for dessert wines (mistelle, white port, vin de paille), and sparkling wine, etc.
This variety has the same morphological characteristics as the Frontenac noir, but ripens few days earlier.
Varietals: The free-run juice can produce a white wine, a gray wine using the “Saignée” method, and a rosé with maceration. The rosé is light orange or pinkish color; usually, we must use 10 to 20% of Frontenac noir to get a denser and stable color. Dominant fruits are apricot and orange skin aromas. When vinified in red, the color is bright light red. Brings a lot of body in a blend, and produces good dessert wines.
Good hardiness. Early bud burst, irrational vegetation, a slow and uneven establishment can limit its expansion. Susceptible to coulure, and stalk scorch. It does not always work well on lower cordon (50cm). In Vermont and northern New York state, trials on cordons, or Guyot system, yield 12 to 15 T/ha, and produce a wine with intense citrus aromas. Ripening is similar to Seyval, with 24g of sugar compared to 20g.
Varietals: Produces a wine with intense aromas of citrus. Maturity is close Seyval with 24 g of sugar when the Seyval has 20 g.
Very hardy and resistant to disease. Erect growth habit, and low maintenance cost. Slow to establish, and low vigor, it requires a fertile soil; avoid sandy, rocky and dry soil unless using fertilization and irrigation. It ripens at mid-season with low acid and sugar level of 19-21 Brix. Nice appearance and very uniform clusters. Also good for table grapes.
Varietals: Produces a fine and floral wine, sometimes thin, but always pleasant. A cold maceration works well for this variety. This variety is very popular, especially in Trois-Rivières region, and Vermont, USA.
Good hardiness. Very early bud burst: must be planted only on best sites or maritime climate regions. The establishment is fast. Ripens early, erect growth habit, and high bud fertility. When overripe, fruit tends to crack and attracts wasps (thin skin). Sensitive to foliar phylloxera, and fairly susceptible to powdery mildew. Good also as table grapes.
Varietals: As its name suggests, the wine has a muscat and spicy aromas; sometime ginger taste if the grape clusters have not been well exposed to the sun; otherwise, an apricot aroma.
Even with a pollinating variety nearby, there may have complete coulure if heavy rain occurs during critical days. Moderately vigorous, erect growth habit, low maintenance cost. Good disease resistance and good hardiness.
Varietals: Produces good German style wines, delicate, but a bit thin. Yields 5 to 8 T/ha. Ripens in mid-season, can reach 22 Brix, acidity is easy to control
Not very hardy, but the secondary buds are very fertile. Performs well when trained to upper cordon, or Guyot system, because of its drooping growth habit. Must pay attention not to overload the cordon, because its moderate vigor and clusters can reach 180 g. Good potential for table grapes (grapefruit and pineapple aromas).
Disease resistance, but may be susceptible to anthracnose. Ripens at the end of the season with no more than 21 Brix, and medium acidity.
Varietals: The white wine is very fragrant with floral aromas.